Browse Titles Basic Search Advanced Search Search Tips Supported Browsers Search in Transliteration Confidentiality Usage Agreement Access Options

Search Tips

1. Stem search

This feature allows the user to conduct a search on not only a word, but also all of the grammatically correct derivations of the search word. It is similar to using the asterisk wildcard at the end of a word (see wild card section of this menu), but the stem search automatically determines the root of the word for you and goes from there.

Example: архивный will also return: архивных, архивном, etc.


2. Exact phrase search

" " – When you enclose a word, title, or phrase in quotes to conduct a search, the query will return a list of documents with the exact words that you specified, in the same exact order that you specified. This search will return the fewest number of search results.

Example: "United Nations"


3. Wildcards

* – Use the asterisk [*] as a wildcard to find the same word with different endings.Example: Путин* (returns articles containing the words Путина, Путину, etc.)? – Use the question mark [?] as a wildcard to find variations for only one character.

Example: st?mp (finds "stamp", "stomp").


4. Logic operators

and – This operator will look for matches to ALL words in the same document or field.

Example: president and law (returns articles with BOTH words)

or, [space] – A search conducted with 'or' operator between words will look for matches to ANY word or words specified in the search field.

Example: president law (returns articles with either or both words).

not, [-] – excludes a word from your search. Put it immediately in front of the term you want to avoid.

Example: president -law (returns documents with "president" that do not contain "law").


5. Parentheses

Let’s say you want to conduct a search that’s a little more complex. This time you want all the articles from a given timeframe that talks about the World War II, but do not refer to Japan. In this case you would want to use parentheses in your search. Parentheses allow you to include more than one set of search parameters for one search and allow the search engine to interpret how to answer your search request properly.

Example:((great fatherland war) or (world war ii)) not japan (please pay attention that the search is case insensitive).


6. Proximity operator

~n – this operator limits the distance between the words in queries and phrases.

Example: "liberal government"~3 (means that the word 'liberal' must be within the limits of 3 words from the word 'government').

Example: "(council parliament) legislation"~3 (the word 'legislation' must be within the limits of 10 words from the word 'council' or 'paliament').

Example: ("illegal immigrant"~2 "prohibited immigrant"~2 "illegal visitor"~2 "prohibited visitor"~2) AND (law policy).

Search for documents which contain phrases "illegal immigrant" or "prohibited immigrant" or "illegal visitor" or "prohibited visitor" and at the same time contain words "law" or "policy".
~2 after phrases means that there is accepted combination of phrases that possible to get by applying 2 edits to the initial phrase. For example, documents containing phrases like "illegal immigrant", "immigrant illegal", "immigrant policy illegal", "immigrant policy illegal" are all valid and will be included to the search result.

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